Bundesgesundheitsbl 2012 · 55:535–542 DOI 10.1007/s00103-012-1451-1
Authors: Rolf Rosenbrock, Axel J. Schmidt
Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) produces spectacular improvements in life expectancy and quality of life for people infected with HIV, and contributes to primary prevention in the wider population by reducing the viral load. Many people infected with HIV begin therapy later than indicated, while, despite ongoing prevention efforts, the number of new HIV diagnoses is increasing, along with the incidence of other STIs and, in identifiable subgroups, of hepatitis C, above all among men who have sex with men (MSM). The prevention consequences of this complex situation are discussed in the context of the alternative between control and containment (Suchstrategie) and inclusion and cooperation (Lernstrategie), arguing for HIV prevention to be integrated in the broader paradigm of sexual health and sub-group-specific efforts to increase the willingness to undergo testing both through community-based campaigns and in the health care context on the basis of informed consent and counseling. Above all ethical considerations mitigate against an undifferentiated test-and-treat approach. The contribution identifies research gaps and institutional obstacles that stand in the way of achievable advances and productive linkage of social and medical prevention.