EMIS 2010 Journal Articles 2010

Structural validation and multiple group assessment of the short internalized homonegativity scale in homosexual and bisexual men in 38 European countries: results from the European MSM internet survey

Journal of Sex Research, 2018; 55(4-5):617-629 (doi:10.1080/00224499.2017.1380158).

Authors: Ha Tran, Michael W. Ross, Pamela M. Diamond, Rigmor C. Berg, Peter Weatherburn & Axel J. Schmidt


Internalized homonegativity (IH) is the internalization of negative attitudes and assumptions about homosexual people by homosexual people themselves. To measure IH, Smolenski, Diamond, Ross, and Rosser (2010) and Ross, Rosser, and Smolenski (2010) revised the Reactions to Homosexuality Scale (RHS) to develop the Short Internalized Homonegativity Scale (SIHS) with eight items. Using the European Men Who Have Sex With Men Internet Survey (EMIS) data, with an analytic sample of 130,718 gay and bisexual men in 38 European countries, we confirmed the validity of the SIHS scale in both training and validation data, in strata of Ross, Berg, et al.’s (2013) three “homosexual discrimination” country clusters, of age, and of education level. However, the performance was less adequate in comparison of gay versus bisexually identified individuals. The latent SIHS structure contains only minor variations across these three strata. The seven-item scale performed as well as the eight-item scale. The SIHS is a promising candidate for standard IH measures, which is invariant across cultural, age, and educational strata.

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EMIS 2010 Journal Articles 2010

Anti-LGBT and anti-immigrant structural stigma: an intersectional analysis of sexual minority men’s HIV risk when migrating to or within Europe

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2017 Dec 1; 76(4):356-366 (doi:10.1097/QAI.0000000000001519).

Authors: John E. Pachankis, Mark L. Hatzenbuehler, Rigmor C. Berg, Percy Fernández-Dávila, Massimo Mirandola, Ulrich Marcus, Peter Weatherburn, Axel J. Schmidt


Objective: Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) might be particularly likely to migrate to experience freedoms unavailable in their home countries. Structural stigma (eg, laws and policies promoting the unequal treatment of oppressed populations) in MSM migrants’ sending and receiving countries represent potential barriers to HIV prevention among this intersectional population. This study represents the first investigation of structural determinants of HIV risk in a large, geographically diverse sample of MSM migrants.

Design: The 2010 European MSM Internet Survey (n = 23,371 migrants) was administered across 38 European countries.

Methods: Structural stigma was assessed using (1) national laws and policies promoting unequal treatment of sexual minorities across 181 countries worldwide and (2) national attitudes against immigrants in the 38 receiving countries. We also assessed linguistic status, time since migrating, and 5 HIV-prevention outcomes.

Results: Structural stigma toward sexual minorities (in sending and receiving countries) and toward immigrants (in receiving countries) was associated with a lack of HIV-prevention knowledge, service coverage, and precautionary behaviors among MSM migrants. Linguistic status and time since migrating moderated some associations between structural stigma and lack of HIV prevention.

Conclusions: Structural stigma toward MSM and immigrants represents a modifiable structural determinant of the global HIV epidemic.

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EMIS 2010 Journal Articles 2010

Проектът ЕМIS – участие на България. Резултати от хив-тестването на респондентите

Health Policy and Management, 2014; 2:21–26. (ISSN1313-4981)

Authors: Emilia Naseva, Tonka Varleva, Petar Tsintsarski, Eva Papazova, Vyara Gancheva, Hristo Taskov


The group of men who have sex with men (MSM), is the most affected by HIV, both in Western and Central European countries and in our country. Therefore, the European Commission has funded internet study of MSM community in 33 countries, covering the period from April 2009 to September 2011. The respondents from Bulgaria are 1036. The results of the study in our country showed that more than half of the involved subjects (52.3%) identified themselves as gay or homosexual, one in four (27.7%) considered themselves as bisexual, and 17.1% do not use any term to define their sexual behaviour. Those who claim to know their HIV status are only 68.5% of all respondents; the remaining 31.2% are not sure. It is a concern that a significant proportion (61.4%) of respondents who did not know their HIV status and are sure that they are HIV negative. The information from the survey could be used as a corrective to the already taken initiatives and as a supplement to the new prevention strategies when planning new activities for reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS in Bulgaria at national and regional level. [Article in Bulgarian]

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EMIS 2010 National reports 2010

EMIS-2010 UK local data reports from Gay Men’s Sex Survey

In 2010 the Gay Men’s Sex Survey was part of the pan-European EMIS survey. The following reports present key data from men living in specific areas of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. They are supplementary to the main EMIS report which was published in March 2012.

GMSS: All Northern Ireland (EMIS) 2010 summary report
(by NHS and Social Services Boards of residence)

GMSS: All Scotland (EMIS) 2010 summary report
(by Health Boards of residence)

GMSS: All Wales (EMIS) 2010 summary report
(by Health Boards of residence)

GMSS: All England (EMIS) 2010 summary report
(by 10 Strategic Health Authorities of residence)

Strategic Health Authority reports for England

GMSS: East of England (EMIS) 2010 summary report

GMSS: East Midlands (EMIS) 2010 summary report

GMSS: London (EMIS) 2010 summary report

GMSS: North East (EMIS) 2010 summary report

GMSS: North West (EMIS) 2010 summary report

GMSS: South Central (EMIS) 2010 summary report

GMSS: South East Coast (EMIS) 2010 summary report

GMSS: South West (EMIS) 2010 summary report

GMSS: West Midlands (EMIS) 2010 summary report

GMSS: Yorkshire & The Humber (EMIS) 2010 summary report